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Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are systems that establish a direct connection between the human brain and a computer, thus providing an additional communication channel. They are used in a broad field of applications nowadays. One important issue is the control of neuroprosthetic devices for the restoration of the grasp function in spinal-cord-injured people. In this communication, an asynchronous (self-paced) four-class BCI based on steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) was used to control a two-axes electrical hand prosthesis. During training, four healthy participants reached an online classification accuracy between 44% and 88%. Controlling the prosthetic hand asynchronously, the participants reached a performance of 75.5 to 217.5 s to copy a series of movements, whereas the fastest possible duration determined by the setup was 64 s. The number of false negative (FN) decisions varied from 0 to 10 (the maximal possible decisions were 34). It can be stated that the SSVEP-based BCI, operating in an asynchronous mode, is feasible for the control of neuroprosthetic devices with the flickering lights mounted on its surface.
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