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Electric vehicle (EV) batteries, i.e., currently almost exclusively lithium-ion batteries, are removed from the vehicle once they no longer meet certain requirements. However, instead of being disposed of or recycled, the removed batteries can be used in another, less demanding application, giving them a “second life”. Research in the field of second-life batteries (SLBs) is still at an early stage and, to better understand the “second life” concept and the related challenges, potential second-life applications need to be identified first. Using a detailed study of the scientific literature and an interview with field experts, a list of potential second-life applications was drafted. Afterwards, a technical, economic, and legal evaluation was conducted to identify the most promising options. The findings of this research consisted of the identification of 65 different mobile, semi-stationary and stationary second-life applications; the applications selected as most promising are automated guided vehicles (AGVs) and industrial energy storage systems (ESSs) with renewable firming purposes. This research confirms the great potential of SLBs indicating that second-life applications are many and belong to a broad spectrum of different sectors. The applications identified as most promising are particularly attractive for the second-life use of batteries as they belong to fast-growing markets.
|Publikationsstatus||Veröffentlicht - März 2023|
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