3D nanoprinting via focused electron beams

Robert Winkler*, Jason D. Fowlkes, P. Rack, Harald Plank*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Additive manufacturing of three-dimensional objects on the nanoscale is a very relevant topic but still a highly challenging task. Among the pool of nanofabrication techniques, focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) has recently developed from a trial-and-error laboratory method to a predictable 3D nanoprinting technology with unique advantages. This perspective article first introduces the basic principles of 3D-FEBID, followed by an overview of historical developments with a particular emphasis on the last three years. Here, we examine different aspects of 3D nanoprinting such as the instrumental setup, fundamental growth mechanisms, simulations, computer aided design software solutions, material properties, and application studies. For each aspect, the individual challenges and limitations are discussed. In addition, we share our outlook about possible solutions and studies currently under investigation. As a perspective, we also address the most urgent milestones of the future and speculate on applications ranging from optics to mechanics, magnetics, and electronics, all of them benefiting from the recently improved 3D FEBID synthesis technique
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)210901
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Applied Physics
Issue number21
Publication statusPublished - 8 May 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)

Fields of Expertise

  • Advanced Materials Science

Treatment code (Nähere Zuordnung)

  • Basic - Fundamental (Grundlagenforschung)

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