A simulation model of the application of the solar STAF panel heat transfer and noise reduction with and without a transparent plate: A renewable energy review

Dušan Strušnik*, Daniel Brandl, Helmut Schober, Janko Ferčec, Jurij Avsec

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Solar energy is an affordable and environmentally friendly source of energy available in unlimited amounts. Therefore, the development of new environmentally friendly energy technologies has become crucial. The importance of increasing the application of solar technology is reflected in the development of new innovative panels using solar energy for heating, cooling as well as for electricity generation and even hydrogen production. We have designed a new innovative solar panel, currently still in the testing phase, to be integrated into the façade of the building. The solar panel consists of an absorption heat exchanger, an interior heat exchanger and insulating material between them. Numerical simulation analyses of the solar panel heat and noise transfer were based on the measurements performed. The following numerical simulation analyses were carried out: a heat transfer analysis with and without a transparent plate in front of an absorption heat exchanger, a heat transfer analysis of the interior heat exchanger, a noise reduction analysis and a heat transfer analysis regarding solar panel orientation. Moreover, other original diagrams are presented having an impact on the panel during the solar energy heat transfer, such as absorbed heat, emitted heat, convection-conduction heat, reflected heat and an efficiency diagram. The results of the analysis show that the installation of a transparent panel in front of the absorption heat exchanger reduces the panel efficiency when there is no wind and that it increases its efficiency when the wind blows. It is recommended to manufacture a STAF panel heat exchanger with two inlet and outlet pipes in order to avoid any flow-induced noise. In the event of improper orientation, the absorption capacity of solar radiation may be reduced by more than 40%.

Original languageEnglish
Article number110149
Number of pages17
JournalRenewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews
Issue number134
Early online date4 Aug 2020
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2020


  • Absorption capacity
  • Heat exchanger
  • Heat transfer
  • Noise reduction
  • Solar radiation
  • STAF panel

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment

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