A Systematic Review of the Transthoracic Impedance during Cardiac Defibrillation

Yasmine Heyer*, Daniela Baumgartner, Christian Baumgartner*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


For cardiac defibrillator testing and design purposes, the range and limits of the human TTI is of high interest. Potential influencing factors regarding the electronic configurations, the electrode/tissue interface and patient characteristics were identified and analyzed. A literature survey based on 71 selected articles was used to review and assess human TTI and the influencing factors found. The human TTI extended from 12 to 212 Ω in the literature selected. Excluding outliers and pediatric measurements, the mean TTI recordings ranged from 51 to 112 Ω with an average TTI of 76.7 Ω under normal distribution. The wide range of human impedance can be attributed to 12 different influencing factors, including shock waveforms and protocols, coupling devices, electrode size and pressure, electrode position, patient age, gender, body dimensions, respiration and lung volume, blood hemoglobin saturation and different pathologies. The coupling device, electrode size and electrode pressure have the greatest influence on TTI.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2808
Pages (from-to)1-27
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 6 Apr 2022


  • defibrillation
  • impedance distribution
  • influencing factors
  • transthoracic impedance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Information Systems
  • Instrumentation
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Biochemistry

Fields of Expertise

  • Human- & Biotechnology


Dive into the research topics of 'A Systematic Review of the Transthoracic Impedance during Cardiac Defibrillation'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this