Adaptive Testing for Specification Coverage in CPS Models

Ezio Bartocci, Roderick Bloem, Benedikt Maderbacher, Niveditha Manjunath, Dejan Nickovic

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review


Ensuring correctness of cyber-physical systems (CPS) is a challenging task that is in practice often addressed with simulation-based testing. Formal specification languages, such as Signal Temporal Logic (STL), are used to mathematically express CPS requirements and thus render the simulation activity more principled. We propose a novel method for adaptive generation of tests with specification coverage for STL. To achieve this goal, we devise cooperative reachability games that we combine with numerical optimization to create tests that explore the system in a way that exercise various parts of the specification. To the best of our knowledge our approach is the first adaptive testing approach that can be applied directly to MATLAB™ Simulink/Stateflow models. We implemented our approach in a prototype tool and evaluated it on several illustrating examples and a case study from the avionics domain, demonstrating the effectiveness of adaptive testing to (1) incrementally build a test case that reaches a test objective, (2) generate a test suite that increases the specification coverage, and (3) infer what part of the specification is actually implemented.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)229-234
Number of pages6
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2021
Event7th IFAC Conference on Analysis and Design of Hybrid Systems - Brussels, Hybrider Event, Belgium
Duration: 7 Jul 20219 Jul 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering

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