Analytic Passive Intermodulation Behavior on the Coaxial Connector Using Monte Carlo Approximation

Xiong Chen*, Yongning He, Sen Yang, Wanzhao Cui, Yao Jiang Zhang, David J. Pommerenke, Jun Fan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper presents a novel passive intermodulation (PIM) prediction method considering random contact behavior using a Monte Carlo method for a coaxial connector. A smart contact model for a contact unit at a microcosmic level is proposed. Using Monte Carlo approximation and micromeasurements, different random distributed contact samples for different contact components inside the coaxial connector are reconstructed. In the experiment, PIM on inner and outer conductor was tested and compared with predication. A good agreement proves the proposed PIM prediction method is efficient. Rather than generating a single PIM prediction value, this method will give a PIM confidence interval for all the potential PIM values considering the contact force statistical behavior. The work will help analyze fluctuated PIM on coaxial connectors and inspire a new method to predict PIM risk.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1207-1214
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • Coaxial connectors
  • contact faults
  • Monte Carlo approximation
  • statistical passive intermodulation (PIM) behavior

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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