Atomic layer deposition of oxide coatings on porous metal and polymer structures fabricated by additive manufacturing methods (laser-based powder bed fusion, material extrusion, material jetting)

Reinhard Kaindl*, Tomáš Homola, Armando Rastelli, Albin Schwarz, Aivar Tarre, Dietmar Kopp, Anna Maria Coclite, Michael Görtler, Benjamin Meier, Bernd Prettenthaler, Maria Belegratis, Jürgen M. Lackner, Wolfgang Waldhauser

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Complex porous 316 L stainless steel, Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-6Al-7Nb, ULTEM™ 1010 and MED610™ polymer structures were produced with additive manufacturing methods. The structures were surface functionalized by atomic layer deposition of titanium, zinc and zirconium oxide coatings with a thickness between 14 and 43 nm. Deep and narrow structures with aspect ratios >10 could be coated. Titanium oxide films are mostly amorphous when plasma-assisted deposition is used and contain nanocrystalline anatase when deposited by thermal atomic layer deposition. The deposited titanium oxide grains ranged in size from ∼20 to 60 nm. In interior parts of the fractured porous polymer model structures with pore sizes of 1–2 mm, both thermal and plasma-assisted titanium oxide thin films and partly delamination were detected. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis revealed almost stoichiometric composition and dominance of the Ti (IV) oxidation state at a 250 °C deposition temperature. Zinc oxide coatings in porous polymer model structures partly delaminate as well, while adhesion and homogeneity is higher for printed Ti-6Al-7Nb lattice structures with a 0.5-mm mesh size. Zirconium oxide coatings on Ti-6Al-4V lattice structures with a 0.8-mm mesh size are comparable to zinc oxide coatings but are mostly crystalline. This is attributed to the relatively high, 300 °C deposition temperature. The findings demonstrate potential but also limitations of combined additive manufacturing and atomic layer deposition for medicine and energy production applications. In addition, the results confirm previous studies that metallic and polymeric substrate materials and process conditions strongly influence the coating structure and composition, and individual development of each intended application is required.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102361
JournalSurfaces and Interfaces
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2022


  • Additive manufacturing
  • Atomic layer deposition
  • Laser-based powder bed fusion
  • Material extrusion
  • Material jetting
  • Oxide coatings
  • Porous structures

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)
  • Surfaces and Interfaces
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films

Fields of Expertise

  • Advanced Materials Science

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