Broadband impedance spectroscopy of Li4Ti5O12 : from nearly constant loss effects to long-range ion dynamics

Bernhard Gadermaier*, Katharina Hogrefe, P. Heitjans, H. Martin R. Wilkening*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) is known as one of the most robust and long-lasting anode materials in lithium-ion batteries. As yet, the Li-ion transport properties of LTO are, however, not completely understood. Here, we used broadband impedance spectroscopy spanning a wide temperature range to investigate the full electrical response of LTO over a wide frequency range. It turned out that the isotherms recorded entail information about two relaxation processes. While at high temperatures the isotherms show a frequency independent plateau that corresponds to poor long-range ion transport (<10−11 S cm−1 (298 K), 0.79 eV), they reveal a second region, seen at lower temperatures and higher frequencies, which we attribute to short-range ion dynamics (10−8 S cm−1) with a significantly reduced activation energy of ca. 0.51 eV. At even lower temperatures, the isotherms are fully governed by nearly constant loss behavior, which has frequently been explained by cage-like dynamics. The present results agree with those earlier presented by 7Li NMR spin-lattice relaxation measurements being sensitive to dynamic processes taking place on quite different length scales. Our findings unveil complex Li+ ion dynamics in LTO and help understand its superior electrochemical properties
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2167-2171
Number of pages5
JournalZeitschrift für Anorganische und Allgemeine Chemie
Issue number22
Publication statusPublished - 25 Nov 2021


  • anode materials
  • conductivity
  • dielectric properties
  • Li diffusion
  • LTO

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Inorganic Chemistry

Fields of Expertise

  • Advanced Materials Science


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