We use strong-coupling perturbation theory, the variational cluster approach (VCA), and the dynamical density-matrix renormalization group (DDMRG) method to investigate static and dynamical properties of the one-dimensional Bose–Hubbard model in both the Mott-insulating and superfluid phases. From the von Neumann entanglement entropy we determine the central charge and the transition points for the first two Mott lobes. Our DMRG results for the ground-state energy, momentum distribution function, boson correlation function decay, Mott gap, and single-particle spectral function are reproduced very well by the strong-coupling expansion to fifth order, and by VCA with clusters up to 12 sites as long as the ratio between the hopping amplitude and onsite repulsion, t/U, is smaller than 0.15 and 0.25, respectively. In addition, in the superfluid phase VCA captures well the ground-state energy and the sound velocity of the linear phonon modes. This comparison provides an authoritative estimate for the range of applicability of these methods. In strong-coupling theory for the Mott phase, the dynamical structure factor is obtained from the solution of an effective single-particle problem with an attractive potential. The resulting resonances show up as double-peak structures close to the Brillouin zone boundary. These high-energy features also appear in the superfluid phase which is characterized by a pronounced phonon mode at small momenta and energies, as predicted by Bogoliubov and field theory. In one dimension, there are no traces of an amplitude mode in the dynamical single-particle and two-particle correlation functions.