Compact Intermodulation Modulator for Phase Reference in Passive Intermodulation Measurements

Xiong Chen*, Sen Yang, David J. Pommerenke, Yongning He, Ming Yu, Jun Fan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this article, a modular designed intermodulation (IM) modulator based on coherent nonlinearity superposition is demonstrated. A coherent combination network for two nonlinear sources (diodes) is composed, excited by a set of two-tone carriers, and the IM products generated from two diodes are inherently coherent. The designed IM phase and magnitude are synthesized by using two IM signals with different magnitudes. The modulator is achieved by modular design, and the manufacture is simplified by using low IM laminate and normal FR-4 substrate to the section with different IM sensitive levels. The work proves a solution to generate an IM phase and magnitude tunable reference for IM measurement, which also proves that IM can be used to carry some information.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8850053
Pages (from-to)4612-4614
Number of pages3
JournalIEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Coherent nonlinearities
  • magnitude superposition
  • passive intermodulation (PIM)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Instrumentation
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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