Continuous error processing during a closed-loop 2D tracking task

Hannah S. Pulferer, Gernot R. Müller-Putz*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The usefulness of error-related potentials (ErrPs) for control in non-invasive Brain-Computer interface (BCI) research has been established over the last decades. To continuously correct for erroneous action of an end effector (e.g., robot arm) in a BCI however, these neural correlates relating only to the discrete perception of errors remain problematic. Using a pre-recorded dataset offering feedback in a 2D tracking task in different correct or erroneous conditions, we analyzed whether error processing during continuous feedback can be observed from the electroencephalogram (EEG). Within this dataset comprising 30 sessions of recordings, we were able to detect significant differences between correct and erroneous conditions. Furthermore, minimal significant difference between two erroneous conditions is reported, confirming the direct connection between error and cognitive response.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)173-176
Number of pages4
JournalCurrent Directions in Biomedical Engineering
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2022


  • brain-computer interface (BCI)
  • continuous 2D target tracking
  • continuous error processing
  • Electroencephalography (EEG)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering

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