Current status and future perspectives of lithium metal batteries

Alberto Varzi*, Katharina Thanner, Roberto Scipioni, Daniele Di Lecce, Jusef Hassoun, Susanne Dörfler, Holger Altheus, Stefan Kaskel, Christian Prehal, Stefan A. Freunberger

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


With the lithium-ion technology approaching its intrinsic limit with graphite-based anodes, Li metal is recently receiving renewed interest from the battery community as potential high capacity anode for next-generation rechargeable batteries. In this focus paper, we review the main advances in this field since the first attempts in the mid-1970s. Strategies for enabling reversible cycling and avoiding dendrite growth are thoroughly discussed, including specific applications in all-solid-state (inorganic and polymeric), Lithium–Sulfur (Li–S) and Lithium-O2 (air) batteries. A particular attention is paid to recent developments of these battery technologies and their current state with respect to the 2030 targets of the EU Integrated Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan) Action 7.

Original languageEnglish
Article number228803
JournalJournal of Power Sources
Publication statusPublished - 31 Dec 2020


  • All-solid-state
  • Battery
  • Lithium metal
  • Lithium-air
  • Lithium–sulfur

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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