Dissolution Testing of Hardly Soluble Materials by Surface Sensitive Techniques: Clotrimazole from an Insoluble Matrix.

Heike Ehmann, Sascha Winter, Thomas Griesser, Roman Keimel, Simone Schrank, Andreas Zimmer, Oliver Werzer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review



The low aqueous solubility of many drugs impedes detailed investigation as the detection limit of standard testing routines is limited. This is further complicated within application relevant thin films typical used in patches or stripes for buccal or topical routes.

In this work a model system is developed based on spin – casting technique allowing defined clotrimazole and clotrimazole – polystyrene composite films preparation at a solid surface. Various highly sensitive techniques including quarz crystal microbalance (QCM), X-ray reflevtivity (XRR) and X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS) are used to investigate the drug release over time into an aqueous media.

The results reveal a steady drug release for both samples over the course of the experiments but with the release from the composite being significantly slower. In addition the dissolution rate of the clotrimazole sample initially increases up to 30 min after which a decrease is noted. XRR shows that this is a result of surface roughening together with film thickness reduction. The results for the composite show that the release in the composite film is a result of drug diffusion within the matrix and collapsing PS film thickness whereby XPS shows that the amount of clotrimazole at the surface after 800 min immersion is still high.

It can be stated that the applied techniques allow following low mass drug release in detail which may also be applied to other systems like pellets or surface loaded nano-carriers providing information for processing and application relevant parameters.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to) 2708–2715
JournalPharmaceutical Research
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Fields of Expertise

  • Advanced Materials Science

Treatment code (Nähere Zuordnung)

  • Basic - Fundamental (Grundlagenforschung)
  • Application
  • Experimental

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