Effect of Ti Addition on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Weld Metals in HSLA Steels

Rasoul Pouriamanesh, Kamran Dehghani*, Rudolf Vallant, Norbert Enzinger

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Acicular ferrite (AF) can significantly improve the mechanical properties of steel welds. One practical approach to enhance the formation of AF is to provide the heterogonous nucleation sites such as Ti oxides. In this study, Ti was added to different conventional welding processes including shield metal arc welding (SMAW), submerged arc welding (SAW) and tandem SAW (T-SAW). In the SMAW process, TiO2 particles as a source of Ti were inserted into the weld groove, while in the SAW and the T-SAW processes, the Ti-enriched S2MoTB wire was used as the filler metal. The microstructural evolution of weldments was characterized by employing optical and scanning electron microscopes. In addition, microhardness (Vickers, HV), Charpy impact and tensile tests were carried out to investigate the mechanical properties of weldments. Although the microhardness measurements of all weldments did not vary significantly and were in the range of 205-252 HV, there was a considerable difference in tensile and impact properties of the SAW and the T-SAW weldments. In the SMAW process, the addition of TiO2 results in no significant enhancement in tensile and impact toughness. This can be attributed to the inhomogeneous distribution of TiO2 particles as well as the formation of large inclusions in the structure. On the other hand, Ti addition to WM increased the yield strength from 489 to 552 MPa for the SAW process, and in contrast, it decreased the impact toughness from 75 to 33 J. This detrimental effect can be related to the higher deposition of other alloying elements in the WM and the formation of more ferrite side plate phase. By applying the T-SAW process, more Ti in WM led to a higher content of AF in the microstructure and increased both yield strength and impact toughness from 528 to 595 MPa and 100 to 180 J, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6058-6068
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Materials Engineering and Performance
Issue number11
Early online date4 Oct 2018
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2018


  • acicular ferrite
  • API 5LX70
  • mechanical properties
  • microstructure
  • tandem submerged arc welding (T-SAW)
  • TiO particles

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering

Fields of Expertise

  • Mobility & Production

Cite this