Effects of Automation and Fatigue on Drivers from Various Age Groups

Sadegh Arefnezhad*, Arno Eichberger, Ioana Victoria Koglbauer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study explores how drivers are affected by automation when driving in rested and fatigued conditions. Eighty-nine drivers (45 females, 44 males) aged between 20 and 85 years attended driving experiments on separate days, once in a rested and once in a fatigued condition, in a counterbalanced order. The results show an overall effect of automation to significantly reduce drivers’ workload and effort. The automation had different effects, depending on the drivers’ conditions. Differences between the manual and automated mode were larger for the perceived time pressure and effort in the fatigued condition as compared to the rested condition. Frustration was higher during manual driving when fatigued, but also higher during automated driving when rested. Subjective fatigue and the percentage of eye closure (PERCLOS) were higher in the automated mode compared to manual driving mode. PERCLOS differences between the automated and manual mode were higher in the fatigued condition than in the rested condition. There was a significant interaction effect of age and automation on drivers’ PERCLOS. These results are important for the development of driver-centered automation because they show different benefits for drivers of different ages, depending on their condition (fatigued or rested).
Original languageEnglish
Article number30
Number of pages13
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2022


  • driver
  • Partial automation
  • Fatigue
  • Age
  • Gender
  • Workload
  • Reaction time
  • gender
  • workload
  • partial automation
  • fatigue
  • reaction time
  • age

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Safety Research

Fields of Expertise

  • Mobility & Production

Treatment code (Nähere Zuordnung)

  • Application
  • Popular Scientific


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