Gernot R. Müller-Putz*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


The electroencephalogram (EEG) was invented almost 100 years ago and is still a method of choice for many research questions, even applications—from functional brain imaging in neuroscientific investigations during movement to real-time applications like brain-computer interfacing. This chapter gives some background information on the establishment and properties of the EEG. This chapter starts with a closer look at the sources of EEG at a micro or neuronal level, followed by recording techniques, types of electrodes, and common EEG artifacts. Then an overview on EEG phenomena, namely, spontaneous EEG and event-related potentials build the middle part of this chapter. The last part discusses brain signals, which are used in current BCI research, including short descriptions and examples of applications.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationBrain-Computer Interfaces
EditorsNick F. Ramsey, José del Rocio Millán Ruiz
Place of PublicationAmsterdam
PublisherElsevier B.V.
Number of pages14
ISBN (Print)978-0-444-63934-9
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2020

Publication series

NameHandbook of Clinical Neurology
ISSN (Print)0072-9752
ISSN (Electronic)2212-4152


  • Artifact
  • Electrode
  • Electrode system
  • Event-related potential
  • Evoked potential
  • Noninvasive BCI
  • Spontaneous EEG

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology

Fields of Expertise

  • Human- & Biotechnology


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