Enhancing Resilience of FSO Networks to Adverse Weather Conditions

Ilya Kalesnikau, Michał Pióro, Jacek Rak*, Hristo Danchov Ivanov, Emma Fitzgerald, Erich Leitgeb

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Optical wireless networks realized by means of gigabit optical wireless communication (OWC) systems are becoming, in a variety of applications, an important alternative, or a complementary solution, to their fiber-based counterparts. However, performance of the OWC systems can be considerably degraded in periods of unfavorable weather conditions, such as heavy fog, which temporarily reduce the effective capacity of the network. In this paper, we focus on optical wireless mesh networks that use terrestrial links (called FSO - free-space optical - links) composed of several parallel full-duplex FSO systems, and present two complementary solutions that together provide a means to maximize network traffic performance in various weather conditions encountered during network operation. The first solution is a method for estimating the degradation of the effective FSO link capacity in adverse weather conditions such as fog, rain and snow (called the weather states in this paper). The second solution is an optimization model aiming at maximizing the network traffic throughput for a given list of weather states, derived from the conducted measurements. The model assumes the so-called affine flow thinning (AFT) traffic routing and protection mechanism capable of controlling the end-to-end traffic flows in response to fluctuations of capacity available on FSO links caused by changing weather conditions. The proposed link capacity modeling approach and the elaborated optimization model are verified through an exhaustive numerical study, illustrating the trade-off between the increase of traffic performance of the FSO networks and the corresponding cost of additional OWC systems.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)123541-123565
Number of pages25
JournalIEEE Access
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Adverse weather conditions
  • affine flow thinning
  • FSO link capacity degradation
  • optical wireless communications
  • optimization
  • resilience
  • wireless mesh networks

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Computer Science(all)


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