Enzymatic Conversion of Lignosulfonate into Wood Adhesives: A Next Step towards Fully Biobased Composite Materials

Raphaela Hellmayr, Sabrina Bischof, Jasmin Wühl, Georg M. Guebitz, Gibson S. Nyanhongo, Nikolaus Schwaiger, Falk Liebner, Rupert Wimmer*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study investigates the effect of the enzymatic polymerization of lignosulfonate for the formulation of a lignosulfonate-based adhesive. For this, beech lamellas were glued together and tested according to the EN 302-1 standard. The results showed that the laccase-polymerized lignosulfonate-based wood adhesives (LS-p) had similar mechanical properties as a standard carpenter’s glue (PVAc-based D3 class white glue), as no significant difference in tensile shear strength between these two adhesive types was found. However, carpenter’s glue showed almost 100% wood failure, while with the lignosulfonate-based wood glue, the samples failed, mainly in the glueline. Pre-polymerization of LS-p is the most critical factor to achieve the required viscosity, which is also connected to the wetting properties and the resulting tensile shear strength. The longer the pre-polymerization, the higher the viscosity of the LS-p adhesive, with the tensile shear strength reaching a plateau. The presented data show the potential of using enzymatically pre-polymerized lignosulfonate as a well-performing wood adhesive. Further development and optimization of the pre-polymerization process is required, which is also important to push towards upscaling and practical applications
Original languageEnglish
Article number259
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Bio-based adhesive
  • Biotechnology
  • Laccase
  • Lignosulfonate
  • Tensile-shear strength
  • Wood adhesive

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Polymers and Plastics

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