FEBID 3D-Nanoprinting at Low Substrate Temperatures: Pushing the Speed While Keeping the Quality

Jakob Wilhelm Hinum-Wagner, David Kuhness, Gerald Kothleitner, Robert Winkler, Harald Plank*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


High-fidelity 3D printing of nanoscale objects is an increasing relevant but challenging task. Among the few fabrication techniques, focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) has demonstrated its high potential due to its direct-write character, nanoscale capabilities in 3D space and a very high design flexibility. A limitation, however, is the low fabrication speed, which often restricts 3D-FEBID for the fabrication of single objects. In this study, we approach that challenge by reducing the substrate temperatures with a homemade Peltier stage and investigate the effects on Pt based 3D deposits in a temperature range of 5–30 °C. The findings reveal a volume growth rate boost up to a factor of 5.6, while the shape fidelity in 3D space is maintained. From a materials point of view, the internal nanogranular composition is practically unaffected down to 10 °C, followed by a slight grain size increase for even lower temperatures. The study is complemented by a comprehensive discussion about the growth mechanism for a more general picture. The combined findings demonstrate that FEBID on low substrate temperatures is not only much faster, but practically free of drawbacks during high fidelity 3D nanofabrication.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1527
Number of pages14
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2021


  • 3D nanoprinting
  • 3D-nanostructures
  • Additive manufacturing
  • Direct write fabrication
  • Focused electron beam induced deposition
  • Metal nanostructures
  • Microstructure
  • Shape fidelity
  • Substrate temperature

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)

Fields of Expertise

  • Advanced Materials Science

Treatment code (Nähere Zuordnung)

  • Basic - Fundamental (Grundlagenforschung)

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