## Abstract

An efficient finite element method to take account of the nonlinearity of the magnetic materials when analyzing three-dimensional eddy current problems is presented in this paper. The problem is formulated in terms of vector and scalar potentials approximated by edge and node based finite element basis functions. The application of Galerkin techniques leads to a large, nonlinear system of ordinary differential equations in the time domain.

The excitations are assumed to be time-periodic and the steady-state periodic solution is of interest only. This is represented either in the frequency domain as a finite Fourier series or in the time domain as a set of discrete time values within one period for each finite element degree of freedom. The former approach is the (continuous) harmonic balance method and, in the latter one, discrete Fourier transformation will be shown to lead to a discrete harmonic balance method. Due to the nonlinearity, all harmonics, both continuous and discrete, are coupled to each other.

The harmonics would be decoupled if the problem were linear, therefore, a special nonlinear iteration technique, the fixed-point method is used to linearize the equations by selecting a time-independent permeability distribution, the so-called fixed-point permeability in each nonlinear iteration step. This leads to uncoupled harmonics within these steps.

As industrial applications, analyses of large power transformers are presented. The first example is the computation of the electromagnetic field of a single-phase transformer in the time domain with the results compared to those obtained by traditional time-stepping techniques. In the second application, an advanced model of the same transformer is analyzed in the frequency domain by the harmonic balance method with the effect of the presence of higher harmonics on the losses investigated. Finally a third example tackles the case of direct current (DC) bias in the coils of a single-phase transformer.

The excitations are assumed to be time-periodic and the steady-state periodic solution is of interest only. This is represented either in the frequency domain as a finite Fourier series or in the time domain as a set of discrete time values within one period for each finite element degree of freedom. The former approach is the (continuous) harmonic balance method and, in the latter one, discrete Fourier transformation will be shown to lead to a discrete harmonic balance method. Due to the nonlinearity, all harmonics, both continuous and discrete, are coupled to each other.

The harmonics would be decoupled if the problem were linear, therefore, a special nonlinear iteration technique, the fixed-point method is used to linearize the equations by selecting a time-independent permeability distribution, the so-called fixed-point permeability in each nonlinear iteration step. This leads to uncoupled harmonics within these steps.

As industrial applications, analyses of large power transformers are presented. The first example is the computation of the electromagnetic field of a single-phase transformer in the time domain with the results compared to those obtained by traditional time-stepping techniques. In the second application, an advanced model of the same transformer is analyzed in the frequency domain by the harmonic balance method with the effect of the presence of higher harmonics on the losses investigated. Finally a third example tackles the case of direct current (DC) bias in the coils of a single-phase transformer.

Original language | English |
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Pages (from-to) | 3-17 |

Journal | Applied Numerical Mathematics |

Volume | 79 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 2014 |

## Fields of Expertise

- Sustainable Systems

## Treatment code (Nähere Zuordnung)

- Application