Fundamentals of Force-Controlled Friction Riveting: Part II - Joint Global Mechanical Performance and Energy Efficiency

Goncalo Filipe Pina Cipriano, Lucian A. Blaga, Jorge F. dos Santos, Pedro Vilaça, Sergio T. Amancio-Filho

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The present work investigates the correlation between energy efficiency and global mechanical performance of hybrid aluminum alloy AA2024 (polyetherimide joints), produced by force-controlled friction riveting. The combinations of parameters followed a central composite design of experiments. Joint formation was correlated with mechanical performance via a volumetric ratio (0.28⁻0.66 a.u.), with a proposed improvement yielding higher accuracy. Global mechanical performance and ultimate tensile force varied considerably across the range of parameters (1096⁻9668 N). An energy efficiency threshold was established at 90 J, until which, energy input displayed good linear correlations with volumetric ratio and mechanical performance (R-sq of 0.87 and 0.86, respectively). Additional energy did not significantly contribute toward increasing mechanical performance. Friction parameters (i.e., force and time) displayed the most significant contributions to mechanical performance (32.0% and 21.4%, respectively), given their effects on heat development. For the investigated ranges, forging parameters did not have a significant contribution. A correlation between friction parameters was established to maximize mechanical response while minimizing energy usage. The knowledge from Parts I and II of this investigation allows the production of friction riveted connections in an energy efficient manner and control optimization approach, introduced for the first time in friction riveting.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2489
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2018


  • friction; riveting; hybrid structures; joining; response surface

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)

Fields of Expertise

  • Advanced Materials Science


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