International Ocean Discovery Program Expeditions 352 and 351 drilled into the Western Pacific Izu-Bonin forearc and rear arc. The drill cores revealed that the forearc is composed of forearc basalts (FAB) and boninites and the rear arc consists of FAB-like rocks. These rocks are pervaded by calcite veins. Blocky vein microtextures enclosing host rock fragments dominate in all locations and suggest hydrofracturing and advective fluid flow. Significant diffusion-fed and crystallization pressure-driven antitaxial veining is restricted to the rear arc. The lack of faults and presence of an Eocene sedimentary cover in the rear arc facilitated antitaxial veining. Rare earth element and isotopic (δ18O, δ13C, 87Sr/86Sr, and Δ47) tracers indicate varying parental fluid compositions ranging from pristine to variably modified seawater. The most pristine seawater signatures are recorded by FAB-hosted low-T (<30 °C) vein calcites. Their 87Sr/86Sr ratios intersect the 87Sr/86Sr seawater curve at ~35–33 and ~22 Ma. These intersections are interpreted as precipitation ages, which concur with Pacific slab rollback. Boninite-hosted low-T (<30 °C) vein calcites precipitated from seawater that was modified by fluid-rock interactions. Mixing calculations yield a mixture of >95% seawater and <5% basaltic 87Sr/86Sr. In the rear arc, low-T rock alteration lowered the circulating seawater in δ18O and 87Sr/86Sr. Thus, vein calcites precipitated from modified seawater with up to 20–30% basaltic 87Sr/86Sr at temperatures up to 74 ± 12 °C. These results show how the local geology and vein growth dynamics affect microtextures and geochemical compositions of vein precipitates.
- Calcite veins
- IODP 352 and 351
- Izu-Bonin forearc and rear arc
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Geochemistry and Petrology