Impact of nebulizer atomization techniques on stability and transport efficiency of liposomal formulations

Florian Bloder

Research output: ThesisMaster's Thesis


Liposomes are a promising drug carrier system for inhalations with a nebulizer.

Aim of this study was to examine different nebulizer principles on their applicability for the transport of liposomes.

An ultrasonic nebulizer, an air-jet nebulizer, and a vibrating mesh nebulizer were compared.

Three liposomal formulations with different surface properties were tested. The main lipids of the three formulations were dipalmitoylphosphocholin and cholesterol.

The influence of nebulization on particle size, lipid concentration, and integrity of the liposomal formulations was determined. The integrity of liposomes was investigated with a fluorophore-quencher system. Furthermore the aerosol particle size of the nebulizers and the integrity of liposomes in lung-surfactant were examined.

It turned out that the stability of liposomes during nebulization depends mainly on the liposomal formulation. The less liposomes are surface modied the higher is their stability. In contrast transport efficiency depends on the applied nebulizer type. The vibrating mesh technique is most efficient. Both, aerosol particle size and stability of liposomes in lung surfactant are independent of the liposomal formulation.

Taken together, the vibrating mesh technique is the best nebulization method and suitable for surface-unmodied liposomes consisting of dipalmitoylphosphocholin and cholesterol.
Original languageEnglish
QualificationMaster of Science
Awarding Institution
  • Graz University of Technology (90000)
  • Stollberger, Rudolf, Supervisor
Publication statusPublished - 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • nebulizer
  • liposome
  • inhalation
  • droplet size
  • leakage

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