Investigation of the Impact of Saccharides on the Relative Activity of Trypsin and Catalase after Droplet and Spray Drying

Johanna Dieplinger, Christina Moser, Gerhard König, Joana T. Pinto, Amrit Paudel*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


While using saccharides as stabilizers for therapeutic protein drying is common, the mechanisms underlying the stabilization during drying remain largely unexplored. Herein, we investigated the effect of different saccharides, trehalose dihydrate (TD), dextran (DEX), and hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrins (low substitution—HP and high substitution—HPB), on the relative activities of the enzymes trypsin and catalase during miniaturized drying (MD) or spray drying (SD). For trypsin, the presence of saccharides, especially HP, was beneficial, as it significantly improved the enzyme activity following MD. The HPB preserved trypsin’s activity during MD and SD. Adding saccharides during MD did not show a notable improvement in catalase activities. Increasing TD was beneficial during the SD of catalase, as indicated by significantly increased activity. Molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations oftrypsin with HP or HPB revealed the influence of their substitution on the binding affinity for the enzyme. A higher affinity of HP to bind trypsin and itself was observed during simulations. Experimentally, activity reduction was mainly observed during MD, attributable to the higher droplet temperature during MD than during SD. The activities from the experiments and aggregation propensity from molecular modeling helped elucidate the impact of the size of protein and saccharides on preserving the activity during drying.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2504
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2023


  • activity
  • cyclodextrin
  • droplet drying
  • molecular modeling
  • saccharide
  • spray drying

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmaceutical Science


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