Microstructural evolution of metallurgical coke: Evidence from Raman spectroscopy

Gerd Rantitsch*, Anrin Bhattacharyya, Ahmat Günbati, Marc-Andre Schulten, Johannes Schenk, Ilse Letofsky-Papst, Jörg Albering

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Raman spectroscopy traces the microstructural evolution of carbonaceous matter (CM) during artificial heating. Thermo-chemical reactivity and strength of blast furnace coke at 1100 °C is dependent on the graphitization state of the feed coke. A standard coke reactivity index (CRI) sample is composed of lumps, showing a high microstructural variability. The frequency distribution of the D-STA parameter estimated by the “Interactive Fitting of Raman Spectra” (IFORS) software suggests a positive correlation between degree of CM organization and CRI. Samples from the tuyere region of an operating blast furnace evidence graphitization of CM at temperatures higher than 1900 °C. IFORS parameters, calibrated by x-ray diffraction-based lattice dimensions and transmission electron microscopy data constrain a temperature gradient decreasing from the raceway to the deadman zone. The gradient controls a continuous variation of the petrographic coke texture. As an application, the IFORS method is able to map the graphitization zones in the hearth of a working blast furnace.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103546
JournalInternational Journal of Coal Geology
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2020


  • Coke reactivity
  • Coke texture
  • Metallurgical coke
  • Raman spectroscopy
  • Transmission electron microscopy
  • Tuyere coke
  • X-ray diffractometry

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Economic Geology
  • Geology
  • Fuel Technology
  • Stratigraphy

Fields of Expertise

  • Advanced Materials Science

Treatment code (Nähere Zuordnung)

  • Basic - Fundamental (Grundlagenforschung)


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