Modeling and Simulation of Pore Formation in a Bainitic Steel During Creep

Felix Meixner*, Mohammad Reza Ahmadi, Christof Sommitsch

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In the field of power engineering, where materials are subjected to high pressures at elevated temperatures for many decades, creep-resistant steels are put to work. Their service life is still, however, finite, as the many changes in their microstructure can merely be mitigated and not avoided. Creep cavitation is one of those changes and, in many cases, ultimately causes failure by rupture. In this work, a model is proposed to simulate the nucleation and growth of cavities during creep. This exclusively physics-based model uses modified forms of Classical Nucleation Theory and the Onsager Extremum Principle in a newly developed Kampmann–Wagner framework. The model is validated on P23 steel which underwent creep rupture experiments at 600 °C and stresses of 50, 70, 80, 90 and 100 MPa for creep times up to 46000 hours. The model predicts qualitatively the shape and prevalence of cavities at different sites in the microstructure, and quantitatively the number density, size of cavities and their phase fraction contributing to a reduction in density. Finally, we find good agreement between the simulation and the experimental results especially at low stresses and longer creep times.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)984-999
Number of pages16
JournalMetallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science
Issue number3
Early online date7 Jan 2022
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Metals and Alloys


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