On the interoperability of IGS products for precise point positioning with ambiguity resolution

Simon Banville*, Jianghui Geng, Sylvain Loyer, Stefan Schaer, Tim Springer, Sebastian Strasser

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Techniques enabling precise point positioning with ambiguity resolution (PPP-AR) were developed over a decade ago. Several analysis centers of the International GNSS Service (IGS) have implemented such strategies into their software packages and are generating (experimental) PPP-AR products including satellite clock and bias corrections. While the IGS combines individual orbit and clock products as standard to provide a more reliable solution, interoperability of these new PPP-AR products must be confirmed before they can be combined. As a first step, all products are transformed into a common observable-specific representation of biases. It is then confirmed that consistency is only ensured by considering both clock and bias products simultaneously. As a consequence, the satellite clock combination process currently used by the IGS must be revisited to consider not only clocks but also biases. A combination of PPP-AR products from six analysis centers over a one-week period is successfully achieved, showing that alignment of phase clocks can be achieved with millimeter precision thanks to the integer properties of the clocks. In the positioning domain, PPP-AR solutions for all products show improved longitude estimates of daily static positions by nearly 60% over float solutions. The combined products generally provide equivalent or better results than individual analysis center contributions, for both static and kinematic solutions.
Original languageEnglish
Article number10
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Geodesy
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 3 Jan 2020


  • Ambiguity resolution
  • GNSS
  • IGS
  • Observable-specific biases
  • Precise point positioning (PPP)
  • Satellite clock combination

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computers in Earth Sciences
  • Geochemistry and Petrology
  • Geophysics


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