Online asynchronous decoding of error-related potentials during the continuous control of a robot

Catarina Lopes-Dias, Andreea Ioana Sburlea, Gernot Müller-Putz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Error-related potentials (ErrPs) are the neural signature of error processing. Therefore, the detection of ErrPs is an intuitive approach to improve the performance of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). The incorporation of ErrPs in discrete BCIs is well established but the study of asynchronous detection of ErrPs is still in its early stages. Here we show the feasibility of asynchronously decoding ErrPs in an online scenario. For that, we measured EEG in 15 participants while they controlled a robotic arm towards a target using their right hand. In 30% of the trials, the control of the robotic arm was halted at an unexpected moment (error onset) in order to trigger error-related potentials. When an ErrP was detected after the error onset, participants regained the control of the robot and could finish the trial. Regarding the asynchronous classification in the online scenario, we obtained an average true positive rate (TPR) of 70% and an average true negative rate (TNR) of 86.8%. These results indicate that the online asynchronous decoding of ErrPs was, on average, reliable, showing the feasibility of the asynchronous decoding of ErrPs in an online scenario
Original languageEnglish
Article number17596
Number of pages9
JournalScientific Reports
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2019

Cite this