Optimization of the Cyclic Cross-Hyperconjugation in 1,4-Ditetrelcyclohexa-2,5-dienes

Rikard Emanuelsson, Aleksandra Denisova, Judith Baumgartner, Henrik Ottosson*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Cyclic cross-hyperconjugation can exist to variable extents in 1,4-ditetrelcyclohexa-2,5-dienes, i.e., all-carbon cyclohexa-1,4-dienes and 1,4-disila/digerma/distanna/diplumbacyclohexa-2,5-dienes. In this study we first use density functional theory (DFT) computations to optimize the conjugation strength by seeking the optimal atom E and substituent group E′Me 3 in the two saturated E(E′Me3)2 moieties (E and E′ as the same or different tetrel (group 14) elements). We reveal that the all-carbon cyclohexadienes with gradually heavier E′Me 3 substituents at the two saturated carbon atoms display significant cross-hyperconjugation. The first electronic excitations in these compounds, which formally have two isolated C=C bonds, are calculated to reach wavelengths as long as 400 nm (excitation energies of 3.1 eV). These transitions are mostly forbidden, and the lowest allowed transitions are found at 387 nm (3.2 eV). The silicon analogues are also cross-hyperconjugated, while a decline is observed in the 1,4-digerma/distanna/diplumbacyclohexa-2,5-diene. Experiments on two substituted 1,4-disilacyclohexa-2,5-dienes confirm the effect of the E′Me3 substituents, with regard to both electronic excitations and geometries as determined by UV absorption spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography, respectively. At the end, we reveal through computations how electron-donating and electron-withdrawing substituents at the C=C double bonds influence the electronic properties of the all-carbon ring. We find that the first calculated excitation, which is forbidden, can be shifted to 440 nm (2.83 eV). This shows to what extent cyclic cross-hyperconjugation can affect the electronic and optical properties of a compound with two formally isolated C=C double bonds
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2997-3004
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Fields of Expertise

  • Sonstiges

Treatment code (Nähere Zuordnung)

  • Basic - Fundamental (Grundlagenforschung)

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