Passive Intermodulation on Coaxial Connector Under Electro-Thermal-Mechanical Multiphysics

Xiong Chen, Ling Wang, David Pommerenke, Ming Yu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This work proposes and demonstrates a multiphysics model for the passive intermodulation (PIM) effect on coaxial connectors with complex electro-thermal-mechanical coupling. The PIM effect under multiphysics is numerically modeled and solved from the basis of contact components and parameters. In the experimental demonstration, to get rid of the random test error, the design of experiment method is utilized to build an empirical model for verification. The comparison shows the max prediction differences with comparison among the proposed numerical multiphysics model, empirical model, and experiment are within ±3 dB; the good match between the experiment and predictions proves the theory.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)169-177
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2022


  • Coaxial connector
  • Connectors
  • Contacts
  • electro-thermal-mechanical coupling
  • Mathematical model
  • Microwave theory and techniques
  • multiphysics
  • Numerical models
  • passive intermodulation (PIM).
  • Resistance
  • Stress
  • Multiphysics
  • Passive intermodulation (PIM)
  • Electro-thermal-mechanical coupling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Radiation
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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