Peering into the mechanism of low-temperature synthesis of bronze-type TiO2 in ionic liquids

Pascal Voepel, Christoph Seitz, Jan M. Waack, Stefan Zahn, Thomas Leichtweiß, Aleksandr Zaichenko, Doreen Mollenhauer, Heinz Amenitsch, Markus Voggenreiter, Sebastian Polarz, Bernd M. Smarsly*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this work, we present detailed investigations on the influence of binary ionic liquid (IL) mixtures on sol-gel syntheses of metastable metal oxide phases. The synthesis of the metastable TiO2 bronze phase and anatase as well as the rutile modification is followed via in situ diffraction methods coupled with thermal gravimetric analysis. The variation of the composition of mixtures of ILs allows for the adjustment of TiO2 phase composition at low temperatures. On the basis of these results, the synthesis of the hexagonal tungsten bronze-like titanium hydroxyl oxy fluoride was achieved. Our results pave the way for a deeper understanding of IL participation in the syntheses of inorganic nanomaterials, going further than treating them as solvents.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5586-5601
Number of pages16
JournalCrystal Growth & Design
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2017

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics

Fields of Expertise

  • Advanced Materials Science

Cite this