Phenomenological Modelling of Camera Performance for Road Marking Detection

Hexuan Li*, Tarik Kanuric, Sadegh Arefnezhad, Zoltan Ferenc Magosi, Christoph Wellershaus, Darko Babic, Dario Babic, Viktor Tihanyi, Arno Eichberger, Marcel Carsten Baunach

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


With the development of autonomous driving technology, the requirements for machine perception have increased significantly. In particular, camera-based lane detection plays an essential role in autonomous vehicle trajectory planning. However, lane detection is subject to high complexity, and it is sensitive to illumination variation, appearance, and age of lane marking. In addition, the sheer infinite number of test cases for highly automated vehicles requires an increasing portion of test and validation to be performed in simulation and X-in-the-loop testing. To model the complexity of camera-based lane detection, physical models are often used, which consider the optical properties of the imager as well as image processing itself. This complexity results in high efforts for the simulation in terms of modelling as well as computational costs. This paper presents a Phenomenological Lane Detection Model (PLDM) to simulate camera performance. The innovation of the approach is the modelling technique using Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP), which is a class of Neural Network (NN). In order to prepare input data for our neural network model, massive driving tests have been performed on the M86 highway road in Hungary. The model’s inputs include vehicle dynamics signals (such as speed and acceleration, etc.). In addition, the difference between the reference output from the digital-twin map of the highway and camera lane detection results is considered as the target of the NN. The network consists of four hidden layers, and scaled conjugate gradient backpropagation is used for training the network. The results demonstrate that PLDM can sufficiently replicate camera detection performance in the simulation. The modelling approach improves the realism of camera sensor simulation as well as computational effort for X-in-the-loop applications and thereby supports safety validation of camera-based functionality in automated driving, which decreases the energy consumption of vehicles
Original languageEnglish
Article number194
Number of pages17
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 28 Dec 2021


  • lane detection
  • multi-layer perceptron
  • simulation and modelling
  • Simulation and modelling
  • Lane detection
  • Multi-layer perceptron

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Automotive Engineering
  • Control and Optimization
  • Energy (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Fuel Technology
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment

Fields of Expertise

  • Mobility & Production

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