Polysaccharide-Based Bioink Formulation for 3D Bioprinting of an In Vitro Model of the Human Dermis

Tanja Zidarič, Marko Milojević, Lidija Gradišnik, Karin Stana Kleinschek, Uroš Maver, Tina Maver

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Limitations in wound management have prompted scientists to introduce bioprinting techniques for creating constructs that can address clinical problems. The bioprinting approach is renowned for its ability to spatially control the three-dimensional (3D) placement of cells, molecules, and biomaterials. These features provide new possibilities to enhance homology to native skin and improve functional outcomes. However, for the clinical value, the development of hydrogel bioink with refined printability and bioactive properties is needed. In this study, we combined the outstanding viscoelastic behavior of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) with the fast cross-linking ability of alginate (ALG), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and encapsulated human-derived skin fibroblasts (hSF) to create a bioink for the 3D bioprinting of a dermis layer. The shear thinning behavior of hSF-laden bioink enables construction of 3D scaffolds with high cell density and homogeneous cell distribution. The obtained results demonstrated that hSF-laden bioink supports cellular activity of hSF (up to 29 days) while offering proper printability in a biologically relevant 3D environment, making it a promising tool for skin tissue engineering and drug testing applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number733
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 11 Apr 2020


  • 3D cell-laden scaffolds
  • Alginate
  • Carboxymethyl cellulose
  • Human-derived skin fibroblasts
  • In vitro skin model
  • Nanofibrillated cellulose

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Materials Science(all)

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