Safety Assessment of High Dynamic Pre-Loaded Lithium Ion Pouch Cells

Christian Ellersdorfer*, Patrick Höschele, Eva Heider, Georgi Kovachev, Gregor Gstrein

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The knowledge of the influence of high dynamic loads on the electrical and mechanical behavior of lithium-ion cells is of high importance to ensure a safe use of batteries over the lifetime in electric vehicles. For the first time, the behavior of six commercial Li-Ion pouch cells after a constrained short-time acceleration (300 g over 6 ms) with a resulting cell surface pressure of 9.37 MPa was investigated. At this load, two out of six cells suffered from an internal short circuit, showing several damaged separator layers across the thickness in the area of the cell tabs. For the cells that remained intact, a range of measurement techniques (e.g., inner resistance measurement, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), or thermal imaging) was used to reveal changes in the electrical property resulting from the load. The cells without short circuit show an increase of internal resistance (average of 0.89%) after the dynamic pre-load. The electric circuit model based on the EIS measurement indicates a decrease of the resistance R 1 up to 30.8%. Additionally, mechanical properties of the cells in an abuse test subsequent to the dynamic pre-load were significantly influenced. The pre-loaded cell could sustain an 18% higher intrusion depth before electrical failure occurred as compared to a fresh cell in an indentation test. The results of this study revealed that a high acceleration pulse under realistic boundary conditions can lead to critical changes in a battery cell’s properties and needs to be taken into account for future safety assessments.

Original languageEnglish
Article number71
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2023


  • battery pre-load
  • crash safety
  • failure behavior
  • internal short circuit
  • lithium-ion battery
  • quasi-static and dynamic loading
  • safety assessment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Electrochemistry

Fields of Expertise

  • Mobility & Production


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