Shape evolution and growth mechanisms of 3D-printed nanowires

Robert Winkler*, Jason D. Fowlkes, Philip D. Rack, Gerald Kothleitner, Harald Plank

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


3D printing of nanowires using Focused Electron Beam Induced Deposition (FEBID) enables the direct-write fabrication of complex 3D objects on almost any substrate surface. The physical properties of such freestanding structures are determined by the dimensions of constituent nanowires. However, little knowledge is available about the exact shape of the nanowires, which is indispensable for calculations and simulations as well as for optimization in applications. In this study, we evaluate the thicknesses and widths of freestanding segments as a function of the inclination angles, primary electron energy, beam currents, and precursor flux. Furthermore, the cross-sectional shape, the cross-sectional area, and the evolution along the length of the wire are investigated. Basing on detailed scanning electron microscopy measurements and Monte Carlo/Finite Differences simulations, the effects that the growth parameters have on the segment growth are elucidated. The results shed light on the growth evolution of the structures and form the basis for future studies on the fabrication of high-precision, arbitrarily shaped nanowires.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102076
Number of pages13
JournalAdditive Manufacturing
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2021


  • 3D nanoprinting
  • Cross-sectional shape
  • Direct write
  • Focused electron beam induced deposition
  • Metal nanostructures
  • Nanowires

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Biomedical Engineering

Fields of Expertise

  • Advanced Materials Science

Treatment code (Nähere Zuordnung)

  • Basic - Fundamental (Grundlagenforschung)

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