Simulation Based Poynting Vector Description of the Field Regions for Simple Radiating Structures

Paul Baumgartner*, Anna Masiero, Christian Manfred Riener, Thomas Bauernfeind

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Estimating the coupling properties between a radiating structure and other conductive elements, the field behavior of the radiating source is essential to know. One well-known classification of the field behavior are the field-regions around antennas, namely, the far-field, the radiating near-field, and the reactive near-field. The different kinds of near-fields are distinguished by the reactive and radiating parts of the electromagnetic field, whereas in the far-field region the field behaves as a plane wave in the direction of propagation. One way to describe these field characteristics is to use the complex Poynting vector, which defines the electromagnetic power flow. This work presents a Poynting-vector-based approach to classify and visualize the field behavior around simple radiators using numerical simulations. First, the approach is applied to simple antenna structures such as dipoles and loop antennas. Later, the introduced field regions are utilized to predict the coupling behavior of practical applications, the coupling between single elements of a linear antenna array, and the coupling behavior of an electrically large loop antenna. It could be shown that the introduced approach, defining a surface description of the boundary between the near-field regions, enables the possibility of predicting the coupling behavior between radiating structures. The introduced error estimator for the far-field also delivers knowledge about the far-field quality in different angular directions and distances. All simulations have been executed applying a one-dimensional partial element equivalent circuit method.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1967
Pages (from-to)1-24
Number of pages24
Issue number13
Publication statusPublished - 23 Jun 2022


  • antenna theory
  • field regions
  • Poynting vector
  • electromagnetic coupling
  • mutual coupling
  • near-field
  • far-field
  • electromagnetic interference
  • loop antennas
  • dipole antennas

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Signal Processing
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Networks and Communications


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