Steady-state modeling of a new continuous API dryer: reduced-order model and investigation of dryer performance

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In the present study, a reduced-order model is proposed to analyze a novel continuous dryer with an application in the pharmaceutical industry. The model was validated using process data from ibuprofen drying test runs, and the results were in good agreement with the experimental data. The test substance was an ibuprofen paste with an initial LOD of up to 30 w%. The simulations showed that the contact heat transfer coefficient can be correlated with the degree of wetness. Furthermore, a set of simulations was performed to analyze the influence of input parameters on the dryer's performance: i) the inlet air flow rate and ii) the inlet air temperature. The simulation results demonstrated that a variation in the inlet air temperature significantly affects the air temperature profile, while the inlet air flow rate has a minor effect. Besides, it was also established that the inlet solid LoD has the most considerable effect on the product quality (e.g., final solid moisture content). The results showed a deviation of less than 10% for the product LoD and the product temperature in most cases.

Original languageEnglish
Article number122701
JournalInternational Journal of Pharmaceutics
Publication statusPublished - 25 Mar 2023


  • Modeling
  • Reduced-order model
  • Screw dryer
  • Indirect drying
  • Heat transfer
  • Solid moisture content

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmaceutical Science


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