Suitability analysis and revised strategies for marine environmental carbon capture and storage (CCS) monitoring

Anna Lichtschlag*, Christopher R. Pearce, Mikael Suominen, Jerry Blackford, Sergey M. Borisov, Jonathan M. Bull, Dirk de Beer, Marcella Dean, Mario Esposito, Anita Flohr, Jonas Gros, Matthias Haeckel, Veerle A.I. Huvenne, Rachael H. James, Dirk Koopmans, Peter Linke, Matthew Mowlem, Abdirahman M. Omar, Allison Schaap, Mark SchmidtStefan Sommer, James Strong, Douglas P. Connelly

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Environmental monitoring of offshore Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) complexes requires robust methodologies and cost-effective tools to detect, attribute and quantify CO2 leakage in the unlikely event it occurs from a sub-seafloor reservoir. Various approaches can be utilised for environmental CCS monitoring, but their capabilities are often undemonstrated and more detailed monitoring strategies need to be developed. We tested and compared different approaches in an offshore setting using a CO2 release experiment conducted at 120 m water depth in the Central North Sea. Tests were carried out over a range of CO2 injection rates (6 - 143 kg d−1) comparable to emission rates observed from abandoned wells. Here, we discuss the benefits and challenges of the tested approaches and compare their relative cost, temporal and spatial resolution, technology readiness level and sensitivity to leakage. The individual approaches demonstrate a high level of sensitivity and certainty and cover a wide range of operational requirements. Additionally, we refer to a set of generic requirements for site-specific baseline surveys that will aid in the interpretation of the results. Critically, we show that the capability of most techniques to detect and quantify leakage exceeds the currently existing legal requirements.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103510
JournalInternational Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021


  • CCS monitoring
  • Leakage attribution
  • Leakage detection
  • Leakage quantification
  • Monitoring strategy
  • Suitability analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Energy(all)
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Suitability analysis and revised strategies for marine environmental carbon capture and storage (CCS) monitoring'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this