Sulfate durability and leaching behaviour of dry- and wet-mix shotcrete mixes

Florian R. Steindl*, Isabel Galan, Andre Baldermann, Marlene Sakoparnig, Lukas Briendl, Joachim Juhart, Maria Thumann, Martin Dietzel, Rudolf Röck, Wolfgang Kusterle, Florian Mittermayr

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Shotcrete is a material frequently used in underground constructions such as tunnels, where Ca leaching and sulfate attack are important durability issues. In this study, two test methods were employed to investigate the sulfate resistance and leaching behaviour of dry- and wet-mix shotcretes in sulfate solutions on a time-resolved basis. Tests on powdered samples showed the dissolution of AFm, portlandite and C-A-S-H, subsequently followed by the precipitation of calcite and ettringite. The extent of sulfate expansion of drill cores corresponded to the chemical response of the powder materials, particularly on the reactivity of Ca- and Al-containing hydrated cement phases. The use of high-purity metakaolin (7–10 wt%) in the shotcrete binder significantly decreased the sulfate durability, while high amounts of other SCMs such as blast-furnace slag and silica fume (>20 wt%) had a positive effect on the durability of shotcrete.

Original languageEnglish
Article number106180
Number of pages19
JournalCement and Concrete Research
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2020


  • Durability
  • Leaching
  • SCMs
  • Shotcrete
  • Sulfate attack

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Building and Construction
  • Materials Science(all)


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