Tailoring the alloy composition for wire arc additive manufacturing utilizing metal-cored wires in the cold metal transfer process

Florian Pixner*, Ricardo Henrique Buzolin, Anto Zelic, Florian Kerem Riedlsperger, Marta Orlowska, Fernando Gustavo Warchomicka, Mathieu Decherf, Michael Lasnik, Norbert Enzinger

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In the present study, the application and tailoring of the alloy composition of chromium martensitic hot-work steels using metal cored wires (MCW) for wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) in a modified short-circuit metal transfer process is demonstrated. The nickel content was varied and the alloys were fabricated as tubular-cored wires with various powder fillings. By recording the material transfer at high speed during processing, evidence was gathered indicating the suitability of the fabricated cored wires for WAAM. Optimized process parameters were identified by taking a Design of Experiment (DoE) approach and additive manufacturing (AM) structures were fabricated from the chromium martensitic hot-work tool steel alloys. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the parts were subsequently characterized. The phase fraction of the polygonally shaped delta ferrite could be reduced and microstructural refinement could be achieved by adding nickel to the investigated hot-work tool steel. In addition to molybdenum-enriched precipitates that covered the grain boundaries, randomly scattered non-metallic inclusions and oxides were observed. Modifying the microstructure by adding nickel also affects the mechanical properties of the product: an increase in hardness, impact toughness and yield strength as the nickel content increased in the AM structures fabricated by WAAM was observed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number110453
JournalMaterials & Design
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2022


  • Alloy Design
  • Cold Metal Transfer
  • Hot-Work Tool Steels
  • Metal Cored Wires
  • Wire-Based Additive Manufacturing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Materials Science(all)

Fields of Expertise

  • Advanced Materials Science


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