Tattoo-Like Transferable Hole Selective Electrodes for Highly Efficient, Solution-Processed Organic Indoor Photovoltaics

Nicola Piva, Francesco Greco*, Michele Garbugli, Antonio Iacchetti, Virgilio Mattoli, Mario Caironi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In solution-processed organic photovoltaics the deposition of charge selective interlayers or electrodes on top of the photoactive layer is a well-known critical step, typically involving either surface treatments or addition of surfactants. As a general strategy to overcome such processing issues, here a simple and scalable tattoo-based technique is presented for the direct transfer of selective poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/polystyrene-sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) contacts, previously screen printed on commercial temporary tattoo paper, on top of poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) films. The obtained structure works both in sunlight and in artificial low-light indoor conditions. In the latter case, which represents a very interesting application scenario for cost-effective flexible and lightweight photovoltaic chargers, excellent photo-conversion performances, in excess of 7.0 %, are achieved, the best performance reported so far for artificial light conversion with OPV based on the well-known P3HT and PCBM blend. As a proof-of-concept toward real applications, this electrode transfer strategy is adopted to fabricate a 6 cm2 mini-module that in indoor low-light conditions can power a temperature-humidity sensor endowed with an LCD display. These results show that tattoo-like transfer of charge selective electrodes is a promising strategy to simplify the fabrication process flow of organic photovoltaics tailored for low light conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1700325
Number of pages8
JournalAdvanced Electronic Materials
Early online date28 Dec 2017
Publication statusPublished - 11 Oct 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • Electrode transfer
  • Indoor photovoltaics
  • Organic photovoltaics
  • Tattoo electronics
  • Tattoo transfer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials

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