The Virtual Director Concept: Data-Driven Adaptation and Personalization for Live Video Streams

René Ernst Kaiser

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference paperpeer-review


This paper gives a comprehensive overview of the Virtual Director concept. A Virtual Director is a software component automating the key decision making tasks of a TV broadcast director. It decides how to mix and present the available content streams on a particular playout device, most essentially deciding which camera view to show and when to switch to another. A Virtual Director allows to take decisions respecting individual user preferences and playout device characteristics. In order to take meaningful decisions, a Virtual Director must be continuously informed by real-time sensors which emit information about what is happening in the scene. From such (low-level) 'cues', the Virtual Director infers higher-level events, actions, facts and states which in turn trigger the real-time processes deciding on the presentation of the content. The behaviour of a Virtual Director, the 'production grammar', defines how decisions are taken, generally encompassing two main aspects: selecting what is most relevant, and deciding how to show it, applying cinematographic principles.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationDataTV 2019
Subtitle of host publicationProceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Data-Driven Personalisation of Television co-located with the ACM International Conference on Interactive Experiences for Television and Online Video (TVX 2019)
Number of pages15
Publication statusPublished - 2019
Event1st International Workshop on Data-Driven Personalisation of Television - Salford, United Kingdom
Duration: 5 Jun 2019 → …

Publication series

NameCEUR Workshop Proceedings


Conference1st International Workshop on Data-Driven Personalisation of Television
Abbreviated titleDataTV 2019
Country/TerritoryUnited Kingdom
Period5/06/19 → …

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