Three-dimensional printing of the retina

Barbara Lorber, Wen-Kai Hsiao, Keith R Martin

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Biological three-dimensional printing has received a lot of media attention over recent years with advances made in printing cellular structures, including skin and heart tissue for transplantation. Although limitations exist in creating functioning organs with this method, the hope has been raised that creating a functional retina to cure blindness is within reach. The present review provides an update on the advances made toward this goal.

RECENT FINDINGS: It has recently been shown that two types of retinal cells, retinal ganglion cells and glial cells, can be successfully printed using a piezoelectric inkjet printer. Importantly, the cells remained viable and did not change certain phenotypic features as a result of the printing process. In addition, recent advances in the creation of complex and viable three-dimensional cellular structures have been made.

SUMMARY: Some first promising steps toward the creation of a functional retina have been taken. It now needs to be investigated whether recent findings can be extended to other cells of the retina, including those derived from human tissue, and if a complex and viable retinal structure can be created through three-dimensional printing.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)262-7
Number of pages6
JournalCurrent Opinion in Ophthalmology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - May 2016


  • Humans
  • Neuroglia
  • Printing, Three-Dimensional
  • Retina
  • Retinal Ganglion Cells

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