Timing methodologies and studies at the FERMI free-electron laser

Riccardo Mincigrucci*, Filippo Bencivenga, Emiliano Principi, Flavio Capotondi, Laura Foglia, Denys Naumenko, Alberto Simoncig, Simone Dal Zilio, Alessandro Gessini, Gabor Kurdi, Nicola Mahne, Michele Manfredda, Alessia Matruglio, Ivaylo Nikolov, Emanuele Pedersoli, Lorenzo Raimondi, Rudi Sergo, Marco Zangrando, Claudio Masciovecchio

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Time-resolved investigations have begun a new era of chemistry and physics, enabling the monitoring in real time of the dynamics of chemical reactions and matter. Induced transient optical absorption is a basic ultrafast electronic effect, originated by a partial depletion of the valence band, that can be triggered by exposing insulators and semiconductors to sub-picosecond extreme-ultraviolet pulses. Besides its scientific and fundamental implications, this process is very important as it is routinely applied in free-electron laser (FEL) facilities to achieve the temporal superposition between FEL and optical laser pulses with tens of femtoseconds accuracy. Here, a set of methodologies developed at the FERMI facility based on ultrafast effects in condensed materials and employed to effectively determine the FEL/laser cross correlation are presented.A description of the novel timing methodologies developed at the FERMI FEL facility is given.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)44-51
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Synchroton Radiation
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • Cross correlation
  • FEL diagnostics
  • pump-probe
  • timing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiation
  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Instrumentation

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