Transformer saturation methods and transformer response to low frequency currents

Andreas Prohammer, Matthias Rüschitz, Dennis Albert*, Herwig Renner

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference paperpeer-review


This paper investigates transformer saturation effects and laboratory setups to cause transformer saturation. Low frequency currents (LFC), such as geomagnetically induced currents (GIC), in the high-voltage transmission grid can cause transformer saturation. As a consequence, the current gets distorted and the power demand increases. Special test setups are analyzed in laboratory measurements with small-scale transformers, two 50 kVA power transformers and simulations. Advantages and limitations of the different setups are highlighted, with respect to their feasibility in the field and laboratory. The power demand and current distortion during transformer saturation are correlated with the superimposed LFC. An increased non-active power demand was measured for an increase in asymmetrical current distribution between the phases. Furthermore, symmetrical and asymmetrical LFC distributions between the phases are investigated. Recommendations for future work regarding laboratory measurements and transformer setup is given.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationPESS 2020 - IEEE Power and Energy Student Summit, Conference Proceedings
PublisherVDE-Verlag GmbH, Berlin, Offenbach
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)9783800753383
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2020
Event2020 IEEE Power and Energy Student Summit, PESS 2020 - Darmstadt, Virtual, Germany
Duration: 5 Oct 20207 Oct 2020

Publication series

NamePESS 2020 - IEEE Power and Energy Student Summit, Conference Proceedings


Conference2020 IEEE Power and Energy Student Summit, PESS 2020
CityDarmstadt, Virtual


  • Geomagnetism
  • Magnetic flux
  • Magnetization processes
  • Power transformers
  • Reactive power

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology

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