UHF-RFID Backscatter Channel Analysis for Accurate Wideband Ranging

Stefan Josef Grebien, J. Kulmer, M. Goller, F. Galler, H. Arthaber, K. Witrisal

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference paperpeer-review


Positioning and ranging within UHF RFID are highly dependent on the channel characteristics. The accuracy of time-of-flight based ranging systems is fundamentally limited by the available bandwidth. This paper first analyzes the UHF RFID backscatter channel formed by convolution of the individual constituent channels. For this purpose, we present comprehensive wideband channel measurements in two representative scenarios and an analysis with respect to the Rician K-factor for the line-of-sight component, the root-mean-square delay spread, and the coherence distance, which all influence the potential positioning performance. Based on these measurements, we validate the Cramér Rao lower bound for time-of-flight based ranging under the influence of dense multipath and present two types of range estimators, a maximum likelihood and a matched filter approach. The resulting range estimates highlight the need for an increased bandwidth for UHF RFID systems with respect to time-of-flight based ranging.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2017 IEEE International Conference on RFID, RFID 2017
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Number of pages7
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2017


  • matched filters
  • maximum likelihood estimation
  • radiofrequency identification
  • Rician K-factor
  • UHF-RFID backscatter channel analysis
  • coherence distance
  • comprehensive wideband channel measurements
  • line-of-sight component
  • matched filter approach
  • root-mean-square delay spread
  • time-of-flight based ranging
  • wideband ranging
  • Antenna measurements
  • Distance measurement
  • Maximum likelihood estimation
  • Radiofrequency identification
  • Signal to noise ratio
  • Wideband


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