Workshops of the eighth international brain–computer interface meeting: BCIs: the next frontier

Jane E. Huggins*, Dean Krusienski, Mariska J. Vansteensel, Davide Valeriani, Antonia Thelen, Sergey Stavisky, James J.S. Norton, Anton Nijholt, Gernot Müller-Putz, Nataliya Kosmyna, Louis Korczowski, Christoph Kapeller, Christian Herff, Sebastian Halder, Christoph Guger, Moritz Grosse-Wentrup, Robert Gaunt, Aliceson Nicole Dusang, Pierre Clisson, Ricardo ChavarriagaCharles W. Anderson, Brendan Allison, Tetiana Aksenova, Erik Aarnoutse

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The Eighth International Brain–Computer Interface (BCI) Meeting was held June 7–9, 2021 in a virtual format. The conference continued the BCI Meeting series’ interactive nature with 21 workshops covering the breadth of topics in BCI (also called brain–machine interface) research. Some workshops provided detailed examinations of methods, hardware, or processes. Others focused on BCI applications or user groups. Several workshops continued consensus building efforts designed to create BCI standards and improve comparisons between studies and the potential for meta-analysis and large multi-site clinical trials. Ethical and translational considerations were the primary topic for some workshops or an important secondary consideration for others. The range of BCI applications continues to expand, with more workshops focusing on approaches that can extend beyond the needs of those with physical impairments. This paper summarizes each workshop, provides background information and references for further study, summarizes discussions, and describes the resulting conclusion, challenges, or initiatives.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)69-101
Number of pages33
JournalBrain-Computer Interfaces
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Brain–computer interface
  • brain–machine interface
  • conference
  • neuroprosthetics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Behavioral Neuroscience
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Fields of Expertise

  • Human- & Biotechnology


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