Chemical co-precipitation from ferrous and ferric salts at a 1:1.9 stoichiometric ratio in NH4OH base with ultrasonication (sonolysis) in a low vacuum environment has been used for obtaining colloidal suspensions of Fe3O4 nanoparticles coated with citric acid. Before coating, the nanoparticles were processed by electrohydraulic discharges with a high discharge current (several tens of amperes) in a water medium using a pulsed direct current. Magnetite nanoparticles were obtained with an average crystallite diameter D = 25–28 nm as obtained by XRD and particle sizes of 25 nm as measured by small-angle X-ray scattering. Magnetometry showed that all samples were superparamagnetic. The saturation magnetization for the citric acid covered samples after electrohydraulic processing showed higher value (58 emu/g) than for the directly coated samples (50 emu/g). Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the presence and binding of citric acid to the magnetite surface by chemisorption of carboxylate ions. Hydrodynamic sizes obtained from DLS and zeta potentials were 93 and 115 nm, −26 and −32 mV for the citric acid covered nanoparticles and 226 nm and 21 mV for the bare nanoparticles, respectively. The hydraulic discharge treatment resulted in a higher citric acid coverage and better particle dispersion. The developed method can be used in nanoparticle synthesis for biomedical applications.
|Publikationsstatus||Veröffentlicht - 12 Jan. 2023|