Anhydrous liquid ammonia is an interesting carrier of hydrogen and its transportation in low pressure cylinders is commercial practise. The world-wide production of ammonia amounts to 100 million tons per year and is one of the most abundantly used chemicals, produced from natural gas. Liquified ammonia, which is available in low pressure cylinders can be converted in a cracker to 75 % hydrogen. The conversion efficiency is very high. The capacity per weight and volume of ammonia as fuel surpasses methanol. Ammonia is still distributed and available in farm operations in the U.S. The main advantage of ammonia as primary fuel for fuel cells is given in the uncomplicated cracking device. Unlike in hydrocarbon or alcohol fuel cell power devices, no shift converter, selective oxidiser nor further co-reactants like water are required when applying ammonia. Therefore it excels by single feed stream, simplicity of start-up and low overall equipment weight. Compared to hydrogen, ammonia offers significant advantages in cost and convenience as a vehicular fuel due to its higher density and the ease of storage and distribution. Procedures for safe handling have been developed in every country. Facilities for storage and transport by barges, trucks and pipelines from producer to ultimate consumer are available throughout the world.The decomposition of ammonia takes place at approx. 500°C at atmospheric pressure. A cracker can be built much smalle...(this text has been cut automatically)
|Effective start/end date||1/06/99 → 31/05/01|
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